Report an error   

HERDIN Record #: NCR-JAFES-1408071517523 Submitted: 07 August 2014 Modified: 10 March 2015

Ultrasonographic Measurement of Skin and Subcutaneous Thickness at Insulin Injection Sites among Adult Filipinos with Diabetes

Michael Villa

See More

Methodology. We studied 293 Filipino diabetic adults who had ultrasonographic measurements of their skin thickness (ST) and subcutaneous thickness (SCT) at common insulin injection sites.

Results. The mean ST ranges from 1.76 mm to 2.75mm. The mean SCT ranges from 6.91 mm to 19.1 mm. The anterior thigh area has the thinnest mean ST and SCT. On the other hand, the buttocks have the thickest mean ST and area of abdomen has the thickest mean SCT. 

On multiple regression analysis, the predictors for skin thickness are injection site, age, BMI, gender and insulin use, however the overall influence of all these factors on skin thickness is variable at best.

Conclusion.  Skin thickness among Filipinos varies marginally depending on injection site being thickest at the buttocks and thinnest at the thighs. On the other hand, there is greater variability in SCT depending on the injection site, being thickest at the abdominal area and thinnest at the anterior thigh.


To determine the skin and subcutaneous thickness of adult diabetic Filipinos using ultrasonography. 


Publication Type
Publication Sub Type
Journal Article, Original
Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies
Publication Date
May 2014


To determine the skin and subcutaneous thickness of adult diabetic Filipinos using ultrasonography. 


LocationLocation CodeAvailable FormatAvailability +632-637-3162 Fulltext External Link (View)
1. "Strauss K, Insulin injection techniques. Report from the 1st international insulin injection technique workshop" Practical Diabetes International 15(6): 181-184, 2005
2. "Gibney M, Arce A, Byron K, Hirsch L. Skin and subcutaneous adipose layer thickness in adults with diabetes at sites used for insulin injections: Implication for needle length recommendations" Current Medical Research & Opinion 26(6): 1519-1530, 2010
3. "Lo Presti D, Ingegnosi C, Strauss K. Skin and subcutaneous thickness at injecting sites in children with diabetes: Ultrasound findings and recommendations for giving injection" Pediatr Diabetes 13, 525-533. d, 2012
4. "Siminerio L, Kulkarni K, Meece J, Cypresse M. Strategies for insulin injection therapy in diabetes self management. American Association of Diabetes Educators" , 2011. Retrieved from: export/sites/aade/_resources
5. Hansen B. Evidence based clinical guidelines for injection of insulin for adults with diabetes mellitus. Danish Nurses Organization 2006. . Retrieved from: based_clinical_guidelines_for_injection
6. "Gniadecka M, et al. Skin ultrasonography – Clinical implications and experimental applications" The Gulf Journal of Dermatology 2(2): 27-31, 1995
7. "Tan CY. Skin thickness measurement by pulsed ultrasound: its reproducibility, validation and variability" British Journal of Dermatology 106, 657-667, 1982
8. "Waller Jeanette. Age and skin structure and function, a quantitative approach: Blood flow, ph, thickness and ultrasound echogenicity" Skin Research and Technology 11, 227-235, 2005
9. "Frid A, Hirsch L, Gaspar D, Kreugel G. New injection recommendation for patients with diabetes" Diabetes and Metabolism 36, S3-S1, 2010
10. "Laurent A, et al. Echographic measurement of skin thickness in adults by high frequency ultrasound to assess the appropriate microneedle length for intradermal delivery of vaccines" Vaccine 25(34): 6423-30, 2007
11. "Lee Y and Hwang K. Skin thickness of Korean adults" Surgical Radiology Anatomy. Springer Verlag 24(3-4): 183-9, 2002